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Reports, research, and position statements dealing with improving literacy acquisition and instruction.

2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998



This glossary was commissioned by the European Literacy Policy Network, ELINET, in 2015 as one of the deliverables under its contract with the European Commission. It is intended to clarify the meanings of a number of key terms in initial literacy teaching, and therefore to assist discussions both among ELINET partners and more widely.
(pdf, 75 pages, 2016)
EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF GOOD PRACTICE in Raising Literacy Levels of Children, Adolescents and Adults
Literacy is fundamental to human development. It enables people to live full and meaningful lives and to contribute towards the enrichment of the communities in which we all live. By literacy we mean the ability to read and write at a level whereby individuals can effectively understand and use written communication, be it in print or digital media.
(pdf, 34 pages, 2016)
Literacy is fundamental to human development. It enables people to live full and meaningful lives, and to contribute towards the enrichment of the communities in which we live. By literacy we mean the ability to read and write at a level whereby individuals can effectively understand and use written communication in all media (print or electronic), including digital literacy.
(pdf, 17 pages, 2016)
Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade
The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) publishes practice guides in education to provide educa-tors with the best available evidence and expertise on current challenges in education. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) develops practice guides in conjunction with an expert panel, com-bining the panel's expertise with the findings of existing rigorous research to produce specific recommendations for addressing these challenges.
(pdf, 123 pages, 2016)
Research Advisory: Dyslexia
Both informal and professional discussions about dyslexia often reflect emotional, conceptual, and economic commitments, and they are often not well informed by research. Our beliefs and practices should be grounded by what emerges from the available evidence. Although there are contradictions and uncertainties in the research of dyslexia, there are also important convergences.
(pdf, 5 pages, 2016)
How Well are American Students Learning?
The 2016 edition of the Brown Center Report (BCR) is number five in the third volume and the 15th issue overall. The series began in 2000, making this the fifth consecutive presidential election year in which an issue has been published. As is customary, this year's BCR contains three studies.
(pdf, 40 pages, 2016)



Disciplinary Literacy Strategies in Content Area Classes
he International Reading Association's Adolescent Literacy Position Statement (International Reading Association, 2012), calls for content area teachers who provide instruction in the multiple literacy strategies needed to meet the demands of specific disciplines. This is a call for disciplinary literacy.
(pdf, 18 pages, 2015)
The 2015 Brown Center Report on American Education - How Well Are American Students Learning?
The Brookings Institution is a private nonprofit organization devoted to independent research and innovative policy solutions. For more than 90 years, Brookings has analyzed current and emerging issues and produced new ideas that matter - for the nation and the world.
(pdf, 40 pages, 2015)



2014 Abridged Technology and Engineering Literacy Framework
The National Center for Literacy Education is a coalition of 30 professional education associations, policy organizations, and foundations united to support schools in elevating literacy learning. Through support for practice, research, and policy change, we are building a movement around the power of educator teams to advance literacy learning.
(pdf, 40 pages, 2014)
Remodeling Literacy Learning Together - Paths to Standards Implementation
The National Center for Literacy Education is a coalition of 30 professional education associations, policy organizations, and foundations united to support schools in elevating literacy learning. Through support for practice, research, and policy change, we are building a movement around the power of educator teams to advance literacy learning.
(pdf, 40 pages, 2014)
The State of Learning Disabilities: Facts, Trends and Emerging Issues (Third Edition)
For more than 35 years, the National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) has provided essential information and needed resources and services to the learning disabilities community. And in response to a rapidly changing educational landscape, it has recently broadened its mission to address the needs of the more than one in five children, adolescents and adults who are impacted by learning and attention issues every day, in school, at home, in the community and in the workplace.
(pdf, 52 pages, 2014)



Making Room for What Works
Today there is growing agreement that literacy is at the center of all learning. The National Center for Literacy Education, a coalition of education associations, policy organizations, and foundations united to support schools in elevating literacy learning, conducted a nationally representative survey of educators of all roles, grade levels, and subject areas to find out where we stand as a nation. This report provides an overview of NCLE's findings and concludes with an analysis of opportunities to move forward. This report was made possible through the generous support of the Ball Foundation. This report was authored by Catherine Awsumb Nelson, Ph.D., NCLE's Director of Evaluation and Learning. She also designed and analyzed the survey on which the report is based.
Re-Imagining Teaching: Five Structures to Transform the Profession
(pdf, 20 pages, 2013)
Over the past five years, there has been an unprecedented focus on what constitutes effective teaching and how to measure teacher performance. Efforts to more rigorously evaluate teachers, to hold them accountable for student learning, and to help them improve practice have been initiated at the district, state, and federal levels.1 In many ways, it is too early to determine the impact of this focus on teachers; however, we do know that many teachers believe that additional accountability, in the absence of efforts to improve the conditions in which teachers work, is a step in the wrong direction.
How Well are American Students Learning?
(pdf, 36 pages, 2013)
This is the twelfth edition of the Brown Center Report. The structure of the report remains the same from year to year. Part I examines the latest data from state, national, or international assessments. This year the focus is on the latest results from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) released in December, 2012.
The Heart of the Matter
(pdf, 92 pages, 2013)
Who will lead America into a bright future? Citizens who are educated in the broadest possible sense, so that they can participate in their own governance and engage with the world. An adaptable and creative workforce. Experts in national security, equipped with the cultural understanding, knowledge of social dynamics, and language proficiency to lead our foreign service and military through complex global conflicts. Elected officials and a broader public who exercise civil political discourse, founded on an appreciation of the ways our differences and commonalities have shaped our rich history. We must prepare the next generation to be these future leaders.


Leading for Effective Teaching
How School Systems Can Support Principal Success
(pdf, 56 pages, 2012)
In 2009, seven school districts and four charter management organizations (CMOs) joined with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as Partnership Sites to Empower Effective Teaching. In these sites, system, board, and union leaders committed to redesign how they develop, evaluate, recognize, and retain effective teachers as a foundation for improving teaching and learning. Now those efforts are bringing critical
questions of school leadership to the fore, driving changes in expectations for principals and for how school systems organize to support principals and other instructional leaders.
Generating Teaching Effectiveness: The Role of Job-Embedded Professional Learning in Teacher Evaluation
(pdf, 36 pages, 2012)
State and district leaders across the country are working intensely to respond to legislation calling for revised teacher evaluation systems
that incorporate multiple measures of student learning and teacher practice.
Toward the Effective Teaching of New College- and Career-Ready Standards: Making Professional Learning Systemic
(pdf, 28 pages, 2012)
To meet the more rigorous expectations embodied in new college- and career-ready standards, students will need teachers who teach in ways that are distinctly different than how most have been teaching. Students will need, for example, English and science teachers who give students more guided practice in reading nonfiction texts that are more complex than ever.
Linking Teacher Evaluation to Professional Development: Focusing on Improving Teaching and Learning
(pdf, 32 pages, 2012)
This Research & Policy Brief was developed to support the efforts of states and districts to inform professional growth decisions and opportunities by strategic use of results from teacher evaluation processes.
Implementing the Common Core State Standards: A Primer on "Close Reading of Text"
(pdf, 10 pages, 2012)
The Common Core State Standards represent an ambitious effort to improve teaching and learning at an unprecedented scale. Adopted by 45 states and the District of Columbia, these standards are an attempt to dramatically change what students and teachers do in school, by redefining high-level, thought-provoking instruction as the norm for all students in all schools.
Fulfilling the Promise of the Common Core State Standards
(pdf, 48 pages, 2012)
ASCD is the global leader in developing and delivering innovative programs, products, and services that empower educators to support the success of each learner. Comprising 140,000 members—superintendents, principals, teachers, professors, and advocates from more than
143 countries—the ASCD community also includes 55 affiliate organizations.
Meet the promise of content standards: Professional learning required
(pdf, 44 pages, 2012)
Learning Forward's Transforming Professional Learning to Prepare College- and Career-Ready Students: Implementing the Common Core is a multidimensional initiative focused on developing a comprehensive system of professional learning that spans the distance from the statehouse to the classroom.
(pdf, 80 pages, 2012)
A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State
Culture Shift: Teaching in a Learner-Centered Environment Powered by Digital Learning
(pdf, 31 pages, May 2012)
The increasingly global economy and complex world have changed the demands on the U.S. education system.
The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 K-12 Edition
(pdf, 44 pages, 2012 K-12 Edition)
Each of the three global editions of the NMC Horizon Report - higher education, primary and secondary education (K-12), and museum education - highlights six emerging technologies or practices that are likely to enter mainstream use with their focus sectors within three adoption horizons over the next five years.

CHOOSING BLINDLY Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core
(pdf, 28 pages, April 2012)
This report greatly benefited from the insights of a group of experts convened to discuss instructional materials.

Engaging the Adolescent Learner
(pdf, 15 pages, 2012)
Text Complexity and Close Readings

The 2012 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well are American Students Learning?
(pdf, 36 pages, 2012)
This edition of the Brown Center Report on American Education marks the first issue of volume three - and eleventh issue over all. The first installment was published in 2000, just as the Presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and Al Gore were winding down.


Informing Writing - A Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York The Benefits of Formative Assessment
(pdf, 82 pages, 2011)
Timing is everything - or, at least, almost everything. Writing assessment, used formatively to improve learning and instruction, has drawn the attention of researchers and practitioners over the last forty years. Now, at the cusp of the implementation of new assessments measuring the common core state standards in English language arts, Steve Graham, Karen Harris, and Michael Hebert have strategically released their work on formative assessment for writing.

What Does 'College and Career Ready' mean for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities?
(pdf, 30 pages, 2011)
In this paper, we discuss the implications of "college and career" readiness for students with significant cognitive disabilities, i.e., those students who take their state's respective alternate assessment on alternate achievement standards, who typically make up less than 1% of all students. We first briefly describe the population of students with significant cognitive disabilities. Secondly, we describe what is meant by "college and career ready" for all students, as well as the Common Core Standards that underlie the concept of "college and career ready". Third, we consider the extent to which those standards are appropriate for students with significant cognitive disabilities (SCD) within the context of a) "college readiness" and b) "career readiness". In the final section of this paper, we offer goals that states may wish to consider in planning outcomes for students with SCD to be college and career ready.

Learning to Talk and Listen

Science, technology, engineering and mathematics education - Overcoming Challenges in Europe
(pdf, 13 pages, 2011)
This paper has been drafted by European Schoolnet, the European network of 30 Ministries of Education with extensive input from Intel® and the support of reviewers from Danish Science Communication, EngineeringUK, European Round Table of Industrialists, the Institute of Education, Science in School magazine and Science on Stage Europe.


Learning to Talk and Listen

Double Jeopardy: How Third-Grade Reading Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation
(pdf, 15 pages, 2011)
The Annie E. Casey Foundation; Center for Demographic Analysis, University at Albany, State of New York; Foundation for Child Development This study finds that students who don't read proficiently by third grade are four times more likely to leave without a diploma than proficient readers. It is notable in breaking down for the first time the likelihood of graduation by different reading skill levels and poverty experiences.



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Early Warning Full Report
(pdf, 62 pages, 2010)
Why Reading by the End of Third Grade Matters

Writing to Read
(pdf, 74 pages, 2010)
Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading

The ROSE project - An overview and key findings

The ROSE project - An overview and key findings
(pdf, 31 pages, 2010)
In addition to the formal national educational authorities, like Ministries of education, many groups are stakeholders and deal, in a more or less professional way, with issues of science education.

Learning to Talk and Listen

The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study Final Report
(pdf, 417 pages, 2010)
The ERO study is both a demonstration and a rigorous evaluation of two established supplemental literacy interventions that are targeted to ninth-grade students whose reading skills are two or more years below grade level as they enter high school. The purpose of the study is to evaluate these interventions' impact on students' reading comprehension skills and their academic performance as they move through high school. See Box ES.1 for a brief overview of the components of the ERO study.

Learning to Talk and Listen


Reading in the Disciplines
(pdf, 34 pages, 2010)
Adolescents may struggle with text for a number of reasons, including problems with a) vocabulary knowledge, b) general knowledge of topics and text structures, c) knowing of what to do when comprehension breaks down, or d) proficiency in monitoring their own reading comprehension. Most recent literacy initiatives target younger readers and attempt to instill basic decoding and comprehension skills. But struggling adolescent readers in our schools face more complex and pervasive challenges. Supporting these readers as they grapple with the highly specific demands of texts written for different content-areas will help prepare them for citizenship, encourage personal growth and life-satisfaction on many levels, and open up opportunities for future education and employment.

Learning to Talk and Listen

Learning to Talk and Listen
An oral language resource for early childhood caregivers

(pdf, 20 pages, 2010)
Learning to Talk and Listen is intended for early childhood caregivers – teachers in centers and those caring for children in homes. It is intended to help caregivers learn more about how children develop the ability to use words to communicate their thoughts and needs and ask questions, and to understand language they hear in conversations and in books. Why is this important? Because preschool children's understanding of the meaning of words and concepts and of others aspects of language such as sentence structure and listening comprehension, which they learn through their language interactions, are key foundational skills for later reading achievement. This booklet starts by summarizing the research on children's language development. It then presents themes about how to help children build their oral language skills during the preschool years.

A Study of the Effectiveness of K–3 Literacy Coaches
(pdf, 52 pages, 2010)
Based on data from Reading First principals, teachers, and coaches in: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina,Washington, Wyoming


Reducing the High School Dropout Rate
(pdf, 16 pages, 2009)
KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief
Science, technology and innovation in Europe
(pdf, 243 pages, 2009)
The statistics and indicators presented in this 2009 edition of 'Science, Technology and Innovation in Europe' are line with the strategic goals set by the European Council in Lisbon in 2000 - the 'Lisbon strategy' - and Barcelona in 2002 aiming respectively to turn the European Union, by 2010, into most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.
Students On Line
(pdf, 395 pages, 2009)
Digital Technologies and Permformance (Volume VI)

Achievement Gaps
(pdf, 80 pages, 2009)
How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress Statistical Analysis Report

Five states efforts to improve adolescent literacy
(pdf, 57 pages, 2009)
This report describes efforts by five states - Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Rhode Island - to improve adolescent literacy. Highlighting common challenges and lessons, the report examines how each state has engaged key stakeholders, set rigorous goals and
standards, aligned resources to support adolescent literacy goals, built educator capacity, and used data to measure progress.

Features of state response to intervention initiatives in Northeast and Islands Region states
(pdf, 25 pages, 2009)
This review of documents on response to intervention (RTI) available on state education agency web sites in the nine Northeast and Islands Region jurisdic-tions concludes that RTI is supported in seven jurisdictions as an overall school in-structional improvement approach or an approach to determining special educa-tion eligibility. It also finds that RTI docu-ments in the seven jurisdictions address the core features of RTI as defined by the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.


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Learning to Talk and Listen

Teacher Preparation for the Global Age
(pdf, 44 pages, 2008)
Economic, social, and technological transformations are linking us in unprecedented ways. Today's students will need extensive knowledge of
the world and the skills and dispositions to engage with people from many cultures and countries. They will need these to be responsible citizens and effective participants in the global marketplace of the 21st century. Few teachers today are well prepared to educate students for this new global context.

C is for Coach: What is it like to be an Early Childhood Literacy Coach? (pdf, 5 pages, September 2008)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief looks at the roles, responsibilities, and challenges of an early childhood literacy coach.

Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices (pdf, 65 pages, August 2008)
This practice guide from the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences (IES) presents strategies that classroom teachers and specialists can use to increase the reading ability of adolescent students. The recommendations aim to help students gain more from their reading tasks, improve their motivation for and engagement in the learning process, and assist struggling readers who may need intensive and individualized attention


Supporting Literacy Across the Sunshine State: A Study of Florida Middle School Reading Coaches (pdf, 267 pages, August 2008)
RAND, in a report to Carnegie Corporation of New York, evaluated the middle school reading coach program in Florida to answer these questions: How is the program being implemented by the state, districts, schools, and individual coaches? What is the impact of coaching on teachers' practice and students' achievement in reading and mathematics? What features of reading coach models and practices are associated with better outcomes?.
Report Summary
Related Research Brief: Florida Middle School Reading Coaches: What Do They Do? Are They Effective?


The School Board Wants to Know: Why Literacy Coaching? (pdf, 6 pages, July 2008)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief answers some of the questions school boards have about literacy coaching.

Facilitating Teacher Study Groups (pdf, 3 pages, June 2008)
From this Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief consider some the power of shared experiences.

2008 Kids & Family Reading Report (pdf, 64 pages, June 2008)
This report from Scholastic and Yankelovich presents the results of a nationwide survey that examined the factor's shaping children's relationship now, and as they progress through the 21st century. Key findings are included on "Kids & Reading," "Technology & Reading," and "Parent's Role," along with the study implications.


Multimodal Learning Through Media: What the Research Says (pdf, 24 pages, 2008)
This white paper from Cisco examines the misinformation circulating about the effectiveness of multimodal learning, some of it seemingly fabricated for convenience. As curriculum designers embrace multimedia and technology wholeheartedly, Cisco considered it important to set the record straight, in the interest of the most effective teaching and learning..


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Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades (pdf, 55 pages, December 2007)
The target audience for this guide from the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences (IES) is a broad spectrum of school practitioners such as administrators, curriculum specialists, coaches, staff development specialists and teachers who face the challenge of providing effective literacy instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades. The guide also aims to reach district-level administrators who develop practice and policy options for their schools.


FCAT Reading Lessons Learned: 2001-2005 Data Analyses and Instructional Implications (pdf, 190 pages, November 2007)
This report from the Florida Department of Education provides detailed analysis of student performance on FCAT Reading in Grades 3–10 from 2001–2005. The publication include summaries, observations and statistical trends that provide a comprehensive study of student performance by grade. In 2006, the FLDOE convened a task force of curriculum supervisors and specialists, resource teachers, school administrators and Florida educators to examine and review the FLDOE's data analyses of student performance. The task force used these insights to draft observations and instructional implications to improve instruction in the classroom.


To Read or Not To Read: A Question of National Consequence (pdf, 99 pages, November 2007)
This report from the National Endowment of the Arts is a new and comprehensive analysis of reading patterns of children, teenagers, and adults in the United States. To Read or Not To Read assembled data on reading trends from more than 40 sources, including federal agencies, universities, foundations, and associations. The compendium expands the investigation of the NEA's landmark 2004 report, Reading at Risk, and reveals recent declines in voluntary reading and test scores alike, exposing trends that have severe consequences for American society.


What Content-Area Teachers Should Know About Adolescent Literacy (pdf, 72 pages, October 2007)
From the National Institute for Literacy the goal of this report, which summarizes some of the current literature on adolescent literacy research and practice, is to help address middle and high school classroom teachers', administrators', and parents' immediate need for basic information about how to build adolescents' reading and writing skills.


Leading for Literacy: A Compendium of Best Practices for Successful Leadership in Adolescent Literacy (pdf, 32 pages, October 2007)
This resource is a compilation of professional articles written by various presenters at the Adolescent Literacy Leadership Forums, which are conferences aimed at supporting literacy best practices in Ohio secondary classrooms. These forums are collaboratively hosted by the Ohio Resource Center for Mathematics, Science, and Reading and the Ohio Department of Education. This collection of articles focuses on literacy leadership, specifically implementing school-wide literacy initiatives.


Using Strategy Instruction to Help Struggling High Schoolers Understand What They Read (pdf, 27 pages, October 2007)
This review from the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central sought to locate and summarize findings from rigorous, scientifically based studies of the effectiveness of strategy instruction - teaching students to use and articulate strategies that foster active, competent, self-regulated, and intentional learning - for helping struggling high school students improve their reading comprehension. The goal was to address information needs by identifying evidence-based practices intended to help high school teachers teach struggling readers.


Journal of Language & Literacy Education - Literacy Coaching (html, 2007)
The Journal of Language and Literacy Education is an online journal managed and produced by graduate students in the Language and Literacy Education Department at the University of Georgia. The current issue addresses the topic of Literacy Coaching.


What Supports do Literacy Coaches Need from Administrators in Order to Succeed?
(pdf, 5 pages, October 2007)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief outlines the supports that administrators need to embed to increase literacy coaches' chances for success.

Considerations for Literacy Coaches in Classrooms with English Language Learners (pdf, 8 pages, October 2007)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief addresses issues related to literacy coaching in classrooms where there are English Language Learners (ELLs).

Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs
(pdf, 8 pages, September 2007)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief is about reaching for the stars - stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools.

The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007
(pdf, 68 pages, September 2007)
This report presents the results of the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading at grades 4 and 8. Highlights of the national results show that reading skills are improving for both fourth- and eighth-graders, particularly among lower-and middle-performing students. In particular, compared to 2005, four states and jurisdictions District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, and Maryland) improved at both grades 4 and 8.
Florida Snapshot Report for Grade 4 (2007)
Florida Snapshot Report for Grade 8 (2007)


Beginning Reading
(pdf, 8 pages, August 2007)
The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) What Works Clearing House (WWC) offers a range of publications that evaluate beginning reading interventions for students in grades K-3. These interventions and strategies are intended to increase skills in alphabetics, reading fluency, comprehension, and general reading achievement In addition to the topic report, additional informationmy be found on their Web site.


Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice [4-12] (pdf, 50 pages, August 2007)
Results of this meta-analysis provided by the Center on Instruction provides guidance for intervening with adolescent struggling readers, outlining major implications for practice. The report focuses on interventions designed to improve students' use of reading comprehension strategies. It also considers the impact of interventions that target improved reading vocabulary, accurate decoding of unfamiliar words in text, and increased reading fluency.


"Coach" Can Mean Many Things: Five Categories of Literacy Coaches in Reading First
(pdf, 37, pages, June 2007)
Simply knowing that literacy coaches are in schools does not imply anything about how those individuals spend their time-there is a difference between being a coach and doing coaching. This report from the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northwest begins to develop the picture of the qualifications and backgrounds of the people who become coaches and a description of what coaches actually do once they are in a coaching position.


Evidence-based Decisionmaking: Assessing Reading Across the Curriculum Interventions
(pdf, 67, pages, June 2007)
When selecting reading across the curriculum interventions, educators should consider the extent of the evidence base on intervention effectiveness and the fit with the school or district context, whether they are purchasing a product from vendors or developing it internally. This report from the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southeast provides guidance in the decisionmaking.


Self-Assessment for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches
(pdf, 12 pages, May 2007)
This self-assessment for middle and high school literacy/instructional coaches from the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse was developed by the International Reading Association with funding provided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York to go along with the Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches.

Adolescent Literacy Resources: An Annotated Bibliography [4-12]
(pdf, 50 pages, April 2007)
From the Center on Instruction this array of research summaries and policy documents on reading and reading comprehension for students in grades 4-12, while not exhaustive, includes discussions of all the current important research issues in adolescent literacy and the development of state- and district-level policies to support improvements in adolescent literacy outcomes. This is a companion piece to the recently released Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance Document.


From State Policy to Classroom Practice: Improving Literacy Instruction for All Students
(pdf, 16 pages, April 2007)
This document from the National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) serves as guide how to craft state polices and programs that lead to actual instructional changes in the classroom, providing a roadmap of the actions that must be taken at all levels - state, district, school, and classroom - in order to impact instructional practices and help students improve their reading skills.

Principal Support for Literacy Coaching
(pdf, 3 pages, March 2007)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief focuses on what principals need to do to in order for coaching to succeed in a school.

Do's and Dont's for Literacy Coaches: Advice from the Field
(pdf, 5 pages, March 2007)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief provides ideas that have come from the field to help all coaches work effectively in a school.

Coaching Considerations: FAQs Useful in the Development of Literacy Coaching
(pdf, 5 pages, February 2007)
This Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief focuses on the considerations and explores the meaning behind the 10 key ideas that should be part of the discussion educators have as they implement, revise, and operate literacy coaching initiatives.

Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance Document from the Center on Instruction [4-12]
(pdf, 190 pages, 2007)
This document developed by the Center on Instruction's Reading, Special Education and ELL Strands makes recommendations for improving literacy-related instruction in the content areas or across the entire school day, interventions for students reading below grade level, and recommendations for supporting literacy development in adolescent English language learners. Also included are comments from experts in response to questions about methods for improving academic literacy in adolescents and examples of state activities in support of improved adolescent literacy in California, Florida, Rhode Island, and Washington.

Literacy Instruction in the Content Areas: Getting to the Core of Middle and High School Improvement
(pdf, 48 pages, 2007)
Today, more than six million of the nation's secondary school students fall well short of grade-level expectations in reading and writing. Recognizing the urgency of this literacy crisis among middle and high school students, policymakers in all parts of the country have begun to implement a wide range of new programs and services designed to help struggling adolescent readers catch up in essential literacy skills, particularly reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. However - and as this report from the Alliance for Excellent Education argues - if students are to be truly prepared for the sophisticated intellectual demands of college, work, and citizenship, then these reforms will not be enough. Even as their schools help them to catch up in the basics, students also must be taught the advanced literacy skills that will enable them to succeed in the academic content areas - particularly the core content areas of math, science, English, and history.

Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools
(pdf, 77 pages, 2007)
Along with reading comprehension, writing skill is a predictor of academic success and a basic requirement for participation in civic life and in the global economy.  Yet every year in the United States large numbers of adolescents graduate from high school unable to write at the basic levels required by colleges and employers. This report, commissioned by Carnegie Corporation of New York and published by the Alliance for Excellent Education, discusses eleven specific teaching techniques that research suggests will help improve the writing abilities of the country's 4th- to 12th-grade students. Writing Next is the companion publication to the Alliance's 2004 report, Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle School and High School Literacy.

Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners
(pdf, 97 pages, 2007)
Over the past several years, education leaders and policymakers have come to understand that the nation needs to dramatically improve the literacy levels of its adolescents. But the policy discussion has focused, in large part, on the literacy needs of native English speaking students – to date, much less attention has gone to the specific challenges involved in teaching reading and writing to adolescents for whom English is not a first language. This report, commissioned by Carnegie Corporation of New York and published by the Alliance for Excellent Education, makes a powerful case for particular teaching practices and educational policies designed to help English language learners master the reading and writing skills they need to succeed in high school, college, and the workforce.


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A Principal's Guide to Intensive Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School [K-3]
(pdf, 12 pages, November 2006)
This guide From the Center on Instruction provides information critical to developing and implementing an effective school-level intervention program. It is designed to suggest some guiding principles along with examples of how these principles can be operationalized to develop an effective school-level system for meeting the instruction needs of all students.

A Comprehensive K-3 Reading Assessment Plan: Guidance for School Leaders [K-3]
(pdf, 24 pages, November 2006)
Because scientific studies have repeatedly demonstrated the value of regularly assessing reading progress, a comprehensive assessment plan is a critical element of an effective school-level plan for preventing reading difficulties. This guide from the Center on Instruction provides valuable information for school leaders.

Qualifications for Literacy Coaches: Achieving the Gold Standard
(pdf, 3 pages, September 2006)
From this Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief learn how to think about the qualifications of literacy/instructional coaches.

What are the Characteristics of Effective Literacy Coaching?
(pdf, 3 pages, September 2006)
Read and share with others this Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse brief about characteristics of effective literacy coaching.

Reading at Risk: The State Response to the Crisis in Adolescent Litracy
(pdf, 72 pages, July 2006)
This report from the National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) outlines recommendations for policymakers that frame a new approach to meeting the national crisis in adolescent literacy - one based on joint problem-solving, collaborative practice, and collective accountability that engages students in purposeful reading and writing in all subjects being taught..

Position Statement on the Roles and Qualifications of Literacy Coaches in Florida
(pdf, 8 pages, July 2006)
This position statement is from the newly formed Florida Literacy Coaches Association.

What Education Schools Aren't Teaching and What Elementary Teachers Aren't Learning About Reading (pdf, 86 pages, May 2006)
In this groundbreaking report, the National Council on Teacher Quality studied a large representative sampling of ed schools to find out what future elementary teachers are - and are not - learning about reading instruction. The report, the most comprehensive of its kind, determined that education schools are ignoring the principles of good reading instruction that would prepare prospective teachers how to better teach reading.

NCTE Principles of Adolescent Literacy Reform: A Policy Research Brief
(pdf, 20 pages, April 2006)
This document from the National Council of Teachers of English delineates the problems of adolescent literacy and outlines reforms NCTE has identified as necessary to address them.

Reading Between the Lines: What the ACT Reveals about College Readiness in Reading
(pdf, 63 pages, March 2006)
Substantial experience with complex reading texts in high school is the key to development of college-level reading skills, according to this new report by ACT that calls for major changes in high school reading standards and instruction. The report concludes that too many American high school students are graduating without the reading skills they'll need to succeed in college and in workforce training programs.
Reading Between the Lines: Executive Summary
Press Release
Policy Alert Message


Why Johnny (Still) Can't Read
(pdf, 11 pages, February 2006)
In the cover story of the February 2006 issue of Edutopia magazine, Carol Guensburg addresses the crisis in adolescent literacy and reports on the significant efforts still needed to help the growing number of struggling adolescent readers in the United States.


A Resource Guide for Adolescent Literacy
(pdf, 108 pages, 2006)
The National Literacy Project has produced a comprehensive resource guide for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to help education practitioners, from district and school administrators to classroom teachers and coaches, and improve their approach to adolescent literacy. Contents include full literacy programs, professional development resources, examples of successful instructional models, literacy tools, research syntheses and a list of experts in the field.


Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches
(pdf, 60 pages, 2006)
Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches, prepared by the International Reading Association (IRA) with support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and in collaboration with NCTE, NCTM, NSTA, and NCSS, outlines the ideal of what a literacy coach should know and be able to do - in delivering both leadership and support in individual content areas. It is offered as a blueprint not only for literacy coaches themselves, but for policymakers, school and district administrators, and teacher educators, in the hope that it will help support and develop coaching in ways that will most benefit adolescent learners.

Implementing and Sustaining an Effective Reading Program
(pdf, 14 pages, 2006)
A Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE) briefing paper on the essential elements of a successful implementation of reading instruction.

Global Monitoring Report 2006 - Literacy for Life
(pdf, 448 pages, 2006)
This report from UNESCO aims to shine a stronger policy spotlight on the more neglected goal of literacy - a foundation not only for achieving Education for All (EFA) but, more broadly, for reaching the overarching goal of reducing human poverty.


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The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2005
(pdf, 52 pages, October 2005)
This report, from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), presents the national and state results of the NAEP assessment in reading and compares them to results from assessments in 2003 and in the first year data were available, usually 1992. In 2005, nationally representive samples of more than 165,000 fourth-grade and 159,000 eighth-grade students nationwide participated in that assessment.
Florida Snapshot Report for Grade 4 (2005)
Florida Snapshot Report for Grade 8 (2005)


Fourth-Grade Students Reading Aloud: NAEP 2002 Special Study of Oral Reading
(pdf, 84 pages, October 2005)
This report discusses findings about fourth-grade students' oral reading from a special study that was part of the 2002 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading assessment.


Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy
(pdf, 48 pages, October 2005)
States that provide literacy instruction from kindergarten through high school help prepare students to compete in today's global information economy. The National Governors Association (NGA) guide, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy, highlights several successful state-based programs that have helped governors in their efforts to improve reading achievement, raise high school graduation rates, increase the value of the high school diploma, and close the ever-widening achievement gap.


Creating a Culture of Literacy: A Guide for Middle and High School Principals
(pdf, 122 pages, October 2005)
This resource guide from the National Association of Secondary School Principals is intended to help school leaders use research on best literacy practices to create an intervention plan that not only will improve the literacy of all students but also the long-range academic success of students by preparing them for college, work, and citizenship. The guide identifies several key elements that must be in place to fully implement an adolescent literacy program including: committed school leaders, assessments that guide student and teacher learning, ongoing professional development, highly effective teachers who provide explicit instruction to improve comprehension, and strategic and accelerated intervention.

High Stakes Testing and Reading Assessment
(pdf, 18 pages, September 2005)
In this National Reading Conference Policy Brief, Peter Afflerbach provides information related to high stakes reading tests and reading assessment. The brief focuses on the popularity of high stakes tests, the uses and misuses of high stakes tests, and the consequences of high stakes testing.


The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2003
(pdf, 294 pages, July 2005)
This report presents results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2003 fourth- and eighth-grade reading assessments for the nation, for participating states and other jurisdictions, and for participating urban districts.
Florida Snapshot Report for Grade 4 (2003)
Florida Snapshot Report for Grade 8 (2003)


IRA-NICHD Conference on Early Childhood Literacy Research: A Summary of Presentations and Discussions
(pdf, 31 pages, Summer 2005)
In February 2005, researchers from a variety of disciplines met in Washington, D.C., to discuss early childhood literacy. The conference was part of an ongoing collaboration between the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD), part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. This report summarizes presentations and discussions from that conference.


Learning to Change: School Coaching for Systemic Reform
(pdf, 138 pages, February 2005)
This report prepared by Fouts & Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation examines the role of coaching in school reinvention and offers direction for organizations that want to provide coaching support to schools and districts. Part I examines the literature on coaching, identifies major theoretical categories that serve as a framework for discussing coaching goals and practices, and describes characteristics of effective coaches. Part II presents case studies of four successful coaching organizations that represent a cross-section of coaching activities currently in use across the country. Part III provides a listing, one-page description, and contact information for major organizations and programs that focus primarily on district or school-wide coaching for systemic change. In Part IV, the authors provide recommendations based on what they learned from evaluating the foundation's grants as well as visiting and talking to schools and coaching organizations. Coaching organizations should: develop clear theoretical models to guide practices; clearly define roles; provide extensive and on-going training to coaches; and match coaches' skills and qualifications to the needs of schools or districts.


Ten Years of Research on Adolescent Literacy, 1994 - 2004: A Review
(pdf, 37 pages, 2005)
This research paper from Learning Point Associates highlights recommended practices that enable content teachers to be responsive to the needs of ELLs, drawn from two areas of research - promoting academic literacy development of adolescents, and effective content area instruction of ELLs in middle and high schools. Eight instructional practices recommended by both areas of research are discussed in detail to help mainstream content area teachers adeptly support the literacy development of their ELL students.

Is Your School Fit for Literacy? 10 Areas of Action for Principals
(pdf, 27 pages, 2005)
This white paper from Learning Point Associates allows leaders to take stock of how their school's literacy fitness stacks up against a Top 10 list.

Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolescent English Language Learners Through Content Area Learning Part Two: Focus on Developing Academic Literacy Habits and Skills Across the Content Areas
(pdf, 100 pages, 2005)
This research paper from The Education Alliance at Brown University highlights recommended practices that enable content teachers to be responsive to the needs of ELLs, drawn from two areas of research - promoting academic literacy development of adolescents, and effective content area instruction of ELLs in middle and high schools. Eight instructional practices recommended by both areas of research are discussed in detail to help mainstream content area teachers adeptly support the literacy development of their ELL students.

A Facilitator's Guide to Professional Learning Teams
(pdf, 192 pages, 2005)
This guidebook, the 2005 edition of SERVE's A Facilitator's Guide to Professional Learning Teams, provides a set of tools for implementing Professional Learning Teams with an entire faculty or part of a faculty. The book is organized in ten short chapters, or steps. Each step features a variety of tools to use while establishing, maintaining, and evaluating a specific part of the learning team process. Additional support (FAQs, tools, and resources) are available on SERVE's website:www.serve.org/EdQuality/ProfLearnCom/index.php


A Focus on Comprehension
(pdf, 52 pages, 2005)
A Focus on Comprehension is the third booklet in the Research-Based Practices in Early Reading series published by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) at Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL). The purpose of this booklet is to examine what research tells us about factors that affect reading comprehension and about what instruction must contain and what it must do to help students better comprehend the content they read.


Using Student Engagement to Improve Adolescent Literacy
(pdf, 24 pages, 2005)
This Quick Key Action Guide was developed by Learning Point Associates to assist educators and administrators in building capacity to comply with NCLB requirements that relate to increasing student engagement to improve adolescent literacy achievement.


The Path to Competence: A Lifespan Developmental Perspective on Reading
(pdf, 33 pages, 2005)
In this paper (commissioned by the National Reading Conference), Patrick A. Alexander presents a developmental model of reading that encompasses changes across the lifespan.


Powerful Libraries Make Powerful Learners -The Illinois Study
(pdf, 55 pages, 2005)
Executive summary of The Illinois Study that was funded by the Illinois School Library Media Association with additional funding from an FY 04 LSTA Grant from the Illinois State Library, Jesse White, Secretary of State and State Librarian, and a grant from the 21st Century Information Fluency project of the Illinois Mathematics & Science Academy. The study was endorsed by the Illinois State Board of Education.

Key research findings of the study include:

  1. Schools with better-staffed libraries have more students who succeed on tests.

  2. High schools with computers that connect to library catalogs and databases average 6.2% improvement on ACT scores.

  3. Students that visit the library more frequently receive improved reading and writing scores.

  4. Students with access to larger, more current book collections achieve higher reading, writing, and ACT scores.

The entire 200 page report and additional resources may be found at www.islma.org/resources.htm


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The Fourth-Grade Reading Classroom
(pdf, 32 pages, September 2004)
This policy information report from the Educational Testing Service provides a picture of fourth-grade reading instruction in the nation's schools, including information on the teachers, the schools, and teachers' instructional and assessment practices. According to the report, the overall quality of 4th-grade reading instruction is good. However, many minority students don't have the benefit of smaller class sizes, experienced teachers and other key ingredients of high-quality reading programs.


Who Teaches Reading in Public Elementary Schools? The Assignments and Educational Preparation of Reading Teachers
(pdf, 4 pages, August 2004)
This brief from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) examines what classifications of teachers were assigned to teach elementary school reading during the 1999-2000 school year, and these teachers' levels of educational preparation.


Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy
(pdf, 53 pages, July 2004)
This cutting-edge report from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, combines the best research currently available with well-crafted strategies for turning that research into practice. Written by five of the nation's leading researchers, Reading Next charts an immediate route to improving adolescent literacy. The authors outline 15 key elements of an effective literacy intervention, and call on public and private stakeholders to invest in the literacy of middle and high school students today while simultaneously building the knowledge base.
Web version available: www.all4ed.org/publications/ReadingNext/index.html


Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America
(pdf, 60 pages, June 2004)
This report from the National Endowment of the Arts presents the results from the literature segment of the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, conducted by the Census Bureau in 2002 at the NEA's request. The survey asked more than 17,000 adults if during the previous 12 months they had read any novels, short stories, poetry or plays in their leisure time, that were not required for work or school. The report extrapolates and interprets data on literary reading and compares them with results from similar surveys carried out in 1982 and 1992.


The Role and Qualifications of the Reading Coach in the United States
(pdf, 4 pages, May 2004)
This position statement from the International Reading Association (IRA) defines the role of the reading coach; describes what a reading coach should know and be able to do; and provides recommendations for policymakers, school administrators, reading specialists, reading coaches, and classroom teachers.


NCTE Guideline: On Reading, Learning to Read, and Effective Reading Instruction: An Overview of What We Know and How We Know It
(pdf, 9 pages, May 2004)
There is an ongoing debate about reading. What is it? How is it learned? How is it most effectively taught? The Commission on Reading of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has compiled the following overview of what the profession knows about reading, learning to read, and effective reading instruction and referenced some of the large body of research that has given rise to this view. It then outlines policies that promote learning to read.


A Call to Action: What We Know About Adolescent Literacy and Ways to Support Teachers in Meeting Students' Needs
(pdf, 6 pages, May 2004)
The purpose of this document, from the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Commission on Reading, is to provide a research-based resource for media, policymakers, and teachers that acknowledges the complexities of reading as a developmental process and addresses the needs of secondary readers and their teachers.


A Closer Look at the Five Essential Components of Effective Reading Instruction
(pdf, 45 pages, May 2004)
The purpose of this document, from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), is to provide teachers with a clear, concise review of strategies for teaching reading, drawn from scientifically based reading research. It is organized around the five essential components of effective reading instruction and the methods of explicit and systematic instruction identified by the National Reading Panel and applied through the Reading First initiative. The document contains summaries of research findings, descriptions of effective instructional strategies, lesson excerpts illustrating these strategies, and resources for more in-depth exploration of specific topics.


English Language Learner (ELL) Programs at the Secondary Level in Relation to Student Performance
(pdf, 212 pages, March 2004)
This publication from the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) reviews literature and presents findings concerning programs at the secondary school level that are designed to serve English language learners (ELLs). These are students who come from homes where English is not the primary language spoken and whose English language skills are assessed as needing improvement. The report organizes
the reviewed literature by ELL instructional models, by the research or study design types, and by the types of outcomes. Findings related to student academic performance are of particular interest, although other outcomes reported in reviewed literature are described. Major questions for this review of the relationship of ELL programs at the secondary school
level to student performance are:
• What is the nature of the literature (including empirical studies)?
• What findings have been described?
• What are the specific student performance findings?
• How does the literature align with a framework of ELL instructional models?

Teaching Reading IS Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do
(pdf, 40 pages, March 2004)
This is a reprint of the original June 1999 publication.

What Reading Leaders Need to Know About Effective Reading Instruction
(pdf, 4 pages, Spring 2004)
This newsletter from theConsortium on Reading Excellence (CORE) focuses on leadership being the heart of any successful literacy implementation.

What Reading Leaders Need to Know About Successful Reading Instruction
(pdf, 38 pages, 2004)
This resource guide from theConsortium on Reading Excellence (CORE) focuses on leadership being the heart of any successful literacy implementation.

Implementing and Sustaining a Middle and High School Reading and Intervention Program
(pdf, 12 pages, 2004)
A Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE) briefing paper on the essential elements of a successful implementation of reading instruction.

Literacy for Middle School Students: Challenges of Cultural Synthesis
(pdf, 12 pages, 2004)
In this manuscript printed in the National Middle School Association (NMSA)'s Research in Middle Level Education Online, Mary Roe explores the question, "What does research suggest for middle level readers?" To answer it, she conducts a synthesis of empirical studies published between 1990 and 2001 that appeared in journals linked to her professional membership. This examination noted attention to eight categories: (1) interests, (2), strategy instruction, (3) vocabulary, (4) student attributes, (5) comprehension, (6) context, (7) discussion, and (8) tutoring. The author then explores the implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners. Specifically, the author calls for a stronger attention to the literacy learning of middle level students and a greater degree of interplay between researcher and practitioner agendas.

Professional Development Strategies That Improve Instruction:
Professional Learning Communities

(pdf, 16 pages, 2004)
Instructional Coaching
(pdf, 17 pages, 2004)
Two key strategies are central to the Annenberg Institute for School Reform (AISR) at Brown University's work on professional development systems that support real improvements in teaching and learning: professional learning communities (small groups of teachers, administrators, community members, and other stakeholders who collectively examine and work to improve professional practice); and instructional coaching (school-based, educator-led professional learning for groups of teachers in specific content areas). The Institute has developed a package that includes two new publications describing these strategies and what they have learned about using them effectively.

Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolescent English Language Learners Through Content Area Learning Part One: Focus on Motivation and Engagement
(pdf, 68 pages, 2004)
This research paper from The Education Alliance at Brown University highlights the overlap in recommended practices from two emerging areas of educational research: academic literacy development of adolescents, and English language learners in secondary schools. With increasing numbers of ELLs attending secondary schools across the country, more content-area teachers are responsible for teaching them, whether or not they have been trained in best practices with ELLs. The research suggests that teacher professional development that focuses on promising practices for adolescents with academic literacy tasks will provide some of the training that content-area secondary school teachers need in order to productively support the academic literacy development of their ELL students.

A Focus on Vocabulary
(pdf, 44 pages, 2004)
A Focus on Vocabulary is the second booklet in the Research-Based Practices in Early Reading series published by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) at Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL). This booklet explores vocabulary development as a component of reading comprehension. The text examines research results on students' vocabulary acquisition and instruction that helps them develop the kind of vocabulary knowledge that will contribute to their reading success.
Web version available: www.prel.org/products/re_/ES0419.htm

Assessing Reading Fluency
(pdf, 26 pages, 2004)
In this booklet from the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) at Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), Dr. Timothy Rasinski discusses assessments in terms of three components of fluency: Accuracy - accurate decoding of words in text; Automaticity - decoding words with minimal use of attentional resources; and Prosody - appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning. Sample assessments are included.
Web version available: www.prel.org/products/re_/

Achieving State and National Literacy Goals, a Long Uphill Road
(pdf, 456 pages, 2004)
RAND, in a report to Carnegie Corporation of New York, provides information from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) on state assessment systems and student performance on reading or English language arts and writing assessments in order to measure adolescent's (grades 4 through 12) performance toward state literacy goals. This report also examines the relative performance of students against national standards represented by the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP).
Related Research Brief: Meeting Literacy Goals Set by No Child Left Behind: A Long Uphill Road
Web version of brief: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9081


English Language Learners in the Southeast: Research, Policy, & Practice
(pdf, 116 pages, 2004)
This report from SERVE is a synthesis of research studies that yield policy findings about instructional policies and programs for ELL students. This report highlights various ELL programs across the SERVE region and describes current federal and state legislative and policy trends as well as the status of ELL instruction in the Southeast.


Technology and Teaching Children to Read
(pdf, 31 pages, 2004)
This report, developed by the Northeast and the Islands Regional Technology in Education Consortium (NEIRTEC) project, is intended to provide background information that will help reading specialists, education technology specialists, classroom teachers, and special education teachers work together to understand, evaluate, and implement effective uses of technology within K-6 reading programs. It brings together the research-based guidelines for teaching children to read from the National Reading Panel report with information about the potential uses of multimedia digital technology to enhance reading instruction. It also provides background about effective reading instruction and potential uses of technology, and summarizes the currently available research evidence on ways in which technology can successfully enhance reading instruction in the elementary grades.
Web version available: www.neirtec.org/reading_report


The Plurality of Literacy and its Implications for Policies and Programmes
(pdf, 32 pages, 2004)
This position paper from UNESCO intends both to clarify the plural notion of literacy and to suggest concrete actions through which policymakers and programme providers might more effectively address the needs of learners.


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Ten Myths of Reading Instruction
(pdf, 13 pages, December 2003)
From the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's (SEDL) December 2003 Newsletter "here are 10 of the most popular and most potentially pernicious myths that influence reading education."
Web version available: www.sedl.org/pubs/sedl-letter/v14n03/2.html

Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported By Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide
(pdf, 50 pages, December 2003)
This guide from the U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance seeks to provide educational practitioners with user-friendly tools to distinguish practices supported by rigorous evidence from those that are not.
Web version available: www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/rigorousevid/index.html


Effective Reading Programs for English Language Learners
(pdf, 69 pages, December 2003)
This report published by the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR), argues that some empirical evidence suggests that bilingual programs – especially paired bilingual strategies that teach reading in the native language and English at the same time – produce superior results when compared to immersion programs.


Adolescents and Literacy: Reading for the 21st Century
(pdf, 50 pages, November 2003)
This report by the Alliance for Excellent Education examines the reliable, empirical research that exists on how to improve the literacy of children in grades four through 12. It brings together the key findings of the best available research on issues related to adolescent literacy. It also offers policymakers and the public a better understanding of the challenges and opportunities that confront the nation as it begins to work to improve the literacy levels of older children. The report demonstrates that we already know a great deal about reading comprehension and about effective methods for helping students of all ages become better readers.


The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2002
(pdf, 238 pages, June 2003)
This report presents the results of the 2002 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading assessment for the nation and for the participating states and jurisdictions. Comparisons are made to students' performance in the national assessments of 1992, 1994, and 1998 at grades 4, 8, and 12. Comparison data are given within and across participating states and jurisdictions for 1992, 1994, 1998 and 2002 at grades 4 and 8. Additional comparisons for national and cross-state/jurisdictional data are given for the 2000 assessment at grade 4 only.
Florida Report for 2002


Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks of Reading Instruction - Kindergarten through Third Grade
(pdf, 66 pages, June 2003)
This booklet developed by the Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) and was funded by the National Institute for Literacy (NIFL) provides teachers with a summary of the findings of the National Reading Panel from its review of reading research. Organized by major reading topic for kindergarten through grade 3 (phonemic awareness instruction, phonics instruction, vocabulary instruction, fluency instruction, and text comprehension instruction), the booklet lists the main findings from the research, suggests how the findings can be translated to practice, and answers some frequently asked questions about each topic.
Web version available: www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/reading_first1.html


Coaching: A Strategy for Developing Instructional Capacity
(pdf, 46 pages, June 2003)
Coaching is an increasingly popular strategy for districts seeking large-scale improvement in instruction. To help guide district leaders in the practice, the Brown University's Annenberg Institute and the Aspen Institute Program on Education copublished this paper by Barbara Neufeld and Dana Roper of Education Matters, Inc. The paper describes what coaching is, what coaches do, the kinds of supports that coaches need, and the potential benefits to both educators and students.


Using Research and Reason in Education
(pdf, 47 pages, May 2003)
Teachers believe in the power of information, but the rush of school life makes it difficult to stay current with the research on effective instruction. This brief paper produced under contract of the National Institute for Literacy will help teachers become discerning consumers of educational programs and materials. It provides guidance on how to recognize scientifically based instructional strategies, and how to use the concepts of research in the classroom.
Web version available: www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/html/stanovich/


Consumer's Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program Grades K - 3: A Critical Elements Analysis
(pdf, pages, March 2003)
The Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement (IDEA) at the College of Education, University of Oregon provides this critical review of reading programs requires objective and in-depth analysis. For these reasons, they offer the following recommendations and procedures for analyzing critical elements of programs. First, they address questions regarding the importance and process of a core program. Following, they specify the criteria for program evaluation organized by grade level and reading dimensions. Further, they offer guidelines regarding instructional time, differentiated instruction, and assessment.


IRA Standards for Reading Professionals - Revised 2003
(pdf, 17 pages, 2003)
What should reading professionals know and be able to do? The International Reading Association Standards for Reading Professionals answers this question by outlining the teaching proficiencies and professional knowledge required of today's literacy educators. Whether you are a teacher educator, administrator, reading specialist, literacy coach, classroom teacher, or paraprofessional, Standards is an invaluable tool for reflecting on your profession and guiding your professional development. The current edition of Standards was developed by a task force of IRA's Professional Standards and Ethics Committee. Full text is available for browsing; bound volumes can be purchased at the Marketplace.


Literacy Facts & Figures - 2003
(pdf, 61 pages, January 2003)
The National Center for Family Literacy provides this compendium of statistical indicators and research findings that relate to literacy as well as other educational and social conditions. The information is broken into two categories: NCFL's research on family literacy and research from other sources on a variety of literacy topics.


Adolescent Literacy and the Achievement Gap: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go From Here?
(pdf, 37 pages, 2003)
This Carnegie Coporation of New York's Adolescent Literacy Funders Meeting Report reviews the evidence for the persistence of the gap between what we currently are doing to improve the literacy achievement of under-performing adolescents and what we would need to know and do in order to truly address this pressing social problem.


Standards for Reading Professionals - Revised 2003
(html, 2003)
This reference for the Preparation of Educators in the United States, developed by the Professional Standards and Ethics Committee of the International Reading Association (IRA) seeks to answer the question, "What should reading professionals know and be able to do?" Standards for Reading Professionals answers this question by outlining the teaching proficiencies and professional knowledge required of today's literacy educators. Whether you are a teacher educator, administrator, reading specialist, literacy coach, classroom teacher, or paraprofessional, Standards for Reading Professionals is an invaluable tool for reflecting on your profession and guiding your professional development.


Florida's Standards for Teacher Education in Reading
(pdf, 31 pages, 2003)
What should Florida's teachers of reading know and be able to do? In response to an executive order, Just Read, Florida! has recently distributed a draft document of Reading Program Specifications. This document, created by the FLaRE Faculty Fellows, “provides a comprehensive conceptual framework for all Florida educators as a blueprint for developing effective reading programs.” The specifications address four strands, one of which is professional development. Florida's Standards for Teacher Education in Reading complement and extend the Reading Program specifications. The attached Standards for Teacher Education specify standards for preparing Florida's teachers of reading. Serving not as a syllabus for lock-step coursework, the standards are designed instead to describe outcome measures, or sample key indicators, that preservice teachers must demonstrate by way of successful completion of a teacher education program. These indicators are intended to guide/standardize the mandated twelve-credit hours in the state's teacher education programs, statewide. Respective teacher education programs decide how to best provide the instruction so as to ensure that their teacher candidates master the standards and can effectively teach reading for all of Florida's children. The intent of this document, and those which will follow, is to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders of the teaching profession about the preparation of teachers of reading. Future teachers preparing to work in schools need to know the literacy process, content, pedagogical techniques, professional behaviors, skills, and dispositions to help all students become proficient readers. This collaborative work is offered to all key stakeholders of the teaching preparation profession as a resource to revisit state standards for preparing and licensing future teachers of reading and to consider ways this module may enhance each system.


A Focus on Fluency
(pdf, 31 pages, 2003)
Intended for practitioners, A Focus on Fluency is the first booklet in the Research-Based Practices in Early Reading series published by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) at Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL). The report summarizes research on fluency and fluency instruction and describes strategies for fluency instruction. It also explains various ways of conducting repeated oral reading, the use of independent silent reading, an integrated fluency instruction approach, the role of texts, and fluency assessment.


The Literacy Coach: A Key to Improving Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools
(pdf, 36 pages, 2003)
This document produced by the Alliance for Excellent Education helps to develop an understanding of what works in successful programs as well as successful strategies for training effective literacy coaches.


Technology in Reading Instruction
(pdf, 36 pages, 2003)
The 2003 issue of NewsWire, from SouthEast Initiatives Regional Technology in Education Consortium (SEIR-TEC), focuses on roles in which technology can be used to help train teachers in effective practices and to improve reading instruction in the classroom.


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Comprehensive State Literacy Policy: A Guide for Policymakers
(pdf, 4 pages, November 2002)
This guide from the Education Commission of the States contains principles that can serve as tools for policymakers in their efforts to implement literacy initiatives and meet the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.


President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education
(pdf, 96 pages, July 2002)
President Bush ordered the creation of the 24-member President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education on Oct. 2, 2001 (Executive Order 13227). The President charged the Commission with studying issues related to federal, state, and local special education programs in order to improve the educational performance of students with disabilities. The Commission held 13 open hearings and meetings across the country. At those meetings and hearings, the members heard from 109 expert witnesses and more than 175 parents, teachers, students with disabilities, and members of the public. Hundreds of other individuals provided the Commission with letters, written statements, and research. The Commission's effort represents the most expansive review of special education in the 27-year history of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act.
Web version available: www.ed.gov/inits/commissionsboards/whspecialeducation/reports/


Advice on Reading from Experts: Teachers
(pdf, 34 pages, June 2002)
This report, from the National Education Association (NEA), is based on the thoughtful discussion and resulting conclusions of a group of distinguished classroom teachers recognized at the state or national level for their expertise and leadership. These teachers, informed by research and guided by the knowledge gained from their work in classrooms, have put forth some sane and achievable guidelines for providing reading proficiency to all students.


The Use of Scientifically Based Research in Education
(pdf, 77 pages, February 2002)
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 calls for the use of "scientifically based research" as the foundation for many education programs and for classroom instruction. On February 6, 2002, Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education Susan Neuman hosted a seminar where leading experts in the fields of education and science discussed the meaning of scientifically based research and its status across various disciplines. This transcript includes a chapter on Implications for Scientific Based Evidence Approach in Reading.
Web version available: www.ed.gov/nclb/methods/whatworks/research/page_pg7.html


The SOURCE: A Curriculum Guide for Reading Mentors
(pdf, 178 pages, 2002)
Whether reading mentors or classroom teachers, this curriculum from Just Read, Florida! is a great guide that includes an overview of current reading research and weekly lessons for intermediate struggling readers.


Florida Reading Program Specifications
(pdf, 27 pages, 2002)
On September 7, 2001, by Executive Order Number 01-260, Governor Jeb Bush requested the Florida Department of Education to make recommendations for reading programs. In response to the Executive Order, the Department has developed a set of specifications for local reading programs in coordination with numerous Florida stakeholders. As a result, this Reading Program Specifications document provides a comprehensive conceptual framework for all Florida educators as a blueprint for developing effective reading programs. The purpose of the Reading Program Specifications is to provide a blueprint for effective reading programs in Florida. Reading programs must support high quality reading instruction so that all Florida students can meet the Sunshine State Standards. A menu of specific reading knowledge, resources, and instructional practices must be in place. Instructional strategies need to be grounded in scientifically based reading research and coordinated with a wide variety of reading materials. Teachers must know how to orchestrate instructional assessments and each of the major reading components. The plan must be comprehensive and well organized with an open door policy on opportunities for all students to learn to read.


Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension
(pdf, 160 pages, 2002)
The Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) asked RAND to examine how OERI might improve the quality and relevance of the education research it funds. The RAND Reading Study Group was charged with developing a research agenda to address the most pressing issues in literacy and the teaching of reading.
Web version available: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1465/


Summary of the (U.S.) National Reading Panel Report
(pdf, 19 pages, 2002)
From the Division of Research and Policy, International Reading Association, this brief summarizes the National Reading Panel Report.


No Child Left Behind Policy Brief - Literacy
(pdf, 8 pages, 2002)
From the Education Commission of the States, this policy brief summarizes the Reading First and Early Reading First initiatives, discusses implications for states, defines "scientifically based research" and offers policy questions for state leaders to consider.


The Foundations of the Texas Reading Initiative - Promoting Vocabulary Development
(pdf, 37 pages, 2002)
From the Texas Reading Initiative Red Book Series, "Why a booklet about vocabulary development?" Simply because words are the very foundation of learning. Finding ways to increase students' vocabulary growth throughout the school years must become a major educational priority. The purpose of this booklet is to help you make vocabulary development an important part of instruction.


The Foundations of the Texas Reading Initiative - Research-Based Content Area Reading Instruction
(pdf, 17 pages, 2002)
From the Texas Reading Initiative Red Book Series, the purpose of this booklet is to provide teachers with research-based and classroom-tested information about each of these aspects of content area reading instruction, along with specific teaching suggestions that can be used with students.


The Foundations of the Texas Reading Initiative - Guidelines for Examining Phonics & Word Recognition Programs
(pdf, 31 pages, 2002)
From the Texas Reading Initiative Red Book Series, this booklet focuses on instruction in phonics and word recognition programs.


The Foundations of the Texas Reading Initiative - Comprehension Instruction
(pdf, 28 pages, 2002)
From the Texas Reading Initiative Red Book Series, the first part of this document looks at some of the important ideas about reading, comprehension, and comprehension instruction that have emerged from this research. The second part describes what comprehension instruction based on this research can look like, and the third part provides specific research-based instructional activities and procedures that can be used as part of comprehension instruction.


The Foundations of the Texas Reading Initiative - Beginning Reading Instruction
(pdf, 33 pages, 2002)
From the Texas Reading Initiative Red Book Series, this booklet describes important aspects of effective reading instruction, as well as elements of classroom and administrative support for effective instruction.



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Adolescent Literacy Resources: Linking Research and Practice
(pdf, 136 pages, November 2001)
The Laboratory at Brown University (LAB), a program of The Education Alliance at Brown University, brings together in one place research from several fields related to the effective support of adolescent literacy development. It is designed for educators to gain knowledge in the field of adolescent literacy, have resources with which to plan or design an adolescent literacy initiative, and identify key resources that would be relevant to a particular project.


Supporting Adolescent Literacy Across the Content Areas
(pdf, 12 pages, November 2001)
This issue of Perspectives on Policy and Practice from the Laboratory at Brown University (LAB), a program of The Education Alliance at Brown University, investigates the ways in which schools can promote adolescent literacy initiatives within the content areas. Drawing upon current research, this paper explains where leadership and support for these initiatives should be anchored, what educators need to be aware of before implementing these programs at the classroom level, and the new academic standards and technology that must be taken into account when designing an action plan.


Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents
(pdf, 33 pages, October 2001)
This paper by Donna Alvermann (commissioned by the National Reading Conference) summarizes that "Effective literacy instruction for adolescents must take into account a host of factors, including students' perceptions of their competencies as readers and writers, their level of motivation and background knowledge, and their interests. To be effective, such instruction must be embedded in the regular curriculum and make use of multiple forms of texts read for multiple purposes in a variety of learning situations. Because many adolescents of the Net Generation will find their own reasons for becoming literate - reasons that go beyond reading to acquire school knowledge or mastery of academic texts - it is important that teachers create sufficient opportunities for students to engage actively in meaningful subject matter projects that both extend and elaborate on the literacy practices they already own and value."


Adolescent Literacy Resources: Linking Research and Practice
(pdf, 24 pages, September 2001)
Effective literature instruction develops reading, writing, thinking, and other literacy skills – but that is easier said than done.  This booklet by Dr. Judith A. Langer, director of the National Research Center on English Learning & Achievement (CELA), and Elizabeth Close, CELA's director of Educational Outreach, share some of the most effective strategies, drawing on the research and including real classroom examples.


The Nation's Report Card: Fourth-Grade Reading 2000
(pdf, 140 pages, April 2001)
This report presents results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2000 reading assessment at grade 4 and makes comparisons to fourth-grade reading performance on previous NAEP assessments. Student performance is described by average scale scores on the NAEP reading composite scale and in terms of the percentages of students who attained the achievement levels sets by the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). Performance results are also presented by percentile distribution as well as by demographic subgroups, including race/ethnicity, gender, region of the country, type of location, type of school, and eligibility for the free/reduced-price lunch program. One chapter of the report focuses on student-reported background information about school and home experiences and their relation to reading performance. The final chapter focuses on a second set of results from the 2000 reading assessment that includes the performance of special-needs students who were permitted accommodations in the test administration. In addition, the report includes the full text of a reading passage, sample test questions, and examples of student responses.


No Child Left Behind
(pdf, 31 pages, January 2001)

This report, authored by President George W. Bush (and available via the National Reading Panel's website), outlines his plans for improving education. It addresses topics such as Achieving Excellence Through High Standards and Accountability, Improving Literacy by Putting Reading First, and Encouraging Freedom and Accountability.

On page ten of the report, there is a discussion of The Reading First initiative, which built upon the NRP's findings by investing in scientifically-based reading instruction programs in the early grades.

Effective Beginning Reading Instruction
(pdf, 46 pages, 2001)
In this paper (commissioned by the National Reading Conference), Michael Pressley, while agreeing that the conclusions of the National Reading Panel were credible, states that "An important problem, however, was that much of the scientific evidence relating to beginning reading instruction was ignored in the development of the report" (p. 2). The author goes on to discuss scientifically-validated findings that conclude the interventions favored by the Panel are not enough.


Advancing Standards-Based Literacy in the Northeast
(pdf, 72 pages, 2001)
Educators and policymakers have increasingly come to understand that all education depends on achieving the national goal that all children read independently and well by the end of grade three. Standards-Based Early Literacy in the Northeast offers a synthesis of recent regional research and practice within a context of standards-based education. A collection of studies on literacy in the Northeast, from Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts and Vermont, this report from the Laboratory at Brown University (LAB), a program of The Education Alliance at Brown University, asks what fosters high achievement and early literacy development and gives some clues to what works.


Advancing Reading Achievement: Becoming Effective Teachers of Reading through Collective Study
(pdf, 138 pages, 2001)
This book from SERVE provides the content and structure for a group study of reading and instructional practices that advance reading achievement. It includes concise summaries of research that reflect sound practices in reading instruction and the most current understanding of the process of reading.


The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework
(pdf, 62 pages, 2001)
From the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's (SEDL) collection of resources designed to help reading teachers develop a richer understanding of current reading research, easily find information about reading assessment, and use research and assessment information to inform their instructional practice.
Web version available: www.sedl.org/reading/framework/


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Every Child Reading: A Professional Development Guide
(pdf, 38 pages, November 2000)
In this companion to Every Guide Reading: An Action Plan, Learning First Alliance provides professional development guidelines for reading for teachers of the early elementary years.


Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis
(pdf, 27 pages, June 2000)
This meta-analysis, which draws upon summary statistics from 17 studies, examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on reading achievement of K-12 students. Results indicate that CAI promotes higher reading achievement. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) researchers have concluded that reading instruction aligned with CAI can serve as a powerful teaching tool to assist teachers in helping students reach their reading potential.
Web version available: www.prel.org/products/Products/effect-cai.htm


Guidelines for Teaching Middle and High School Students to Read and Write Well
(pdf, 16 pages, May 2000)
The guidelines included in this booklet draw from a five-year study being conducted by Dr. Judith A. Langer, director of the National Research Center on English Learning & Achievement (CELA) . She and a team of researchers have been investigating English programs in 44 classrooms in 25 schools in 4 states. By comparing typical programs with those that get outstanding results, Langer and colleagues have been able to identify the features of the more effective programs.


The National Reading Panel Report: Teaching Children to Read - Reports of the Subgroups
(pdf, 449 pages, April 2000)
The National Reading Panel was established in response to a 1997 congressional directive. Specifically, Congress asked the Director of the NICHD, in consultation with the U.S. Secretary of Education, Richard W. Riley, to convene a national panel to review the scientific literature and determine, based on that evidence, the most effective ways to teach children to read. For its review, the panel selected research from the approximately 100,000 reading research studies that have been published since 1966, and another 15,000 that had been published before that time. Because of the large volume of studies, the panel selected only experimental and quasi-experimental studies, and among those considered only studies meeting rigorous scientific standards in reaching its conclusions. The National Reading Panel's report was published in April, 2000.
Web version available: www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/report.htm
A 35-page Summary Report explains the origin of the Panel and its congressional charge. It describes the research methodology used and the findings of each of the Panel subgroups.
Web version available: www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm

The Report of the NEA Task Force of Reading 2000
(pdf, 30 pages, February 2000)
This document is a set of comprehensive guidelines based on both research and promising practices. The National Education Association (NEA) Task Force on Reading was convened in October 1999 to develop "comprehensive guidelines for NEA members related to reading instruction. According to its official charge, "The guidelines, based on both research and promising practice, will help members as they plan instruction, select programs and materials, and influence state and local policiy related to reading." The report delivered said there is no one way to teach reading that works for all children all the time. Rather than engage in the ongoing and politicized debate over phonetics versus whole language, the NEA Task Force focused instead on describing complete reading programs. The promotion of complete reading programs would include recognition of several critical aspects of reading achievement.
An overview of the report is available: www.nea.org/reading/readreportoverview.html


Excellent Reading Teachers: A Position Statement of the IRA
(pdf, 5 pages, January 2000)
Every child deserves excellent reading teachers because teachers make a difference in children's reading achievement and motivation to read. This position statement from the International Reading Association (IRA) provides a research-based description of the distinguishing qualities of excellent classroom reading teachers.


Action Research
(pdf, 41 pages, 2000)
This is another edition in the Laboratory at Brown University's (LAB), a program of The Education Alliance at Brown University, ongoing Themes in Education booklet series, designed to present an overview of action research as a method for educational inquiry. The booklet answers questions about what is and is not action research, describes the action research process, and offers reflections from two educators on their experiences of using action research in their classrooms to improve their own teaching and their students' learning.


Making a Difference Means Making It Different: Honoring Children's Rights to Excellent Reading Instruction
(pdf, 20 pages, 2000)
Most children can, and do, learn to read and write. But too many children read and write poorly. When schools fail to teach any child to read and write, they fail all of us.We must ensure that all children receive the excellent instruction and support they need to learn to read and write. In this postion statement, the International Reading Association (IRA) reviews the challenges schools face and outlines support children need to become competent readers and writers.



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Teaching Reading IS Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do
(pdf, 36 pages, June 1999)
Thanks to new scientific research--plus a long-awaited scientific and political consensus around reading research--the knowledge exists to teach all but a handful of severely disabled children to read well. This report from the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) discusses the current state of teacher preparation in reading. It reviews the reading research and describes the knowledge base that is essential for teacher candidates and practicing teachers to master if they are to be successful in teaching all children to read well. Finally, this report makes recommendations for improving the system of teacher education and professional development.

NAEP 1998 Reading Report Card for the Nations and the States
(pdf, 304 pages, March 1999)
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the nation's only ongoing survey of what students know and can do in various academic subject areas. This report presents the results of the 1998 NAEP national reading assessment of fourth-, eighth-, and twelfth-grade students. Performance is indicated in terms of average scores on a 0-to-500 scale, and percentages of students attaining three achievement levels: Basic, Proficient, and Advanced. The 1998 results are compared to those in 1994 and 1992. Data for participating states is included.


Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success
(M. Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, and Catherine E. Snow, Editors; Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, National Research Council, 192 pages, 1999)

This guide, developed by the National Research Council, provides ideas that parents, educators, policy-makers, and others can use to help prepare preschool children for formal reading instruction; outlines important concepts about language and literacy for beginning readers; and addresses how to prevent reading difficulties in early childhood and the primary grades. The book includes 55 activities that are based on an exhaustive review of research contained in the 1998 National Research Council report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children.
Web version available: books.nap.edu/html/sor/


Adolescent Literacy
(pdf, 19 pages, 1999)
A position statement on adolescent literacy for the Commission on Adolescent Literacy of the International Reading Association.



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Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children
(Catherine E. Snow, M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin, Editors; Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, National Research Council, 448 pages, September 1998)
The USDOE and US Department of Health and Human Services asked the National Academy of Sciences to establish a committee to examine the prevention of reading difficulties. The committee was charged with "conducting a study of the effectiveness of interventions for young children who are at risk of having problems learning to read." The committee reviewed research on normal reading development and instruction; on risk factors useful in identifying groups and on prevention, intervention, and instructional approaches to ensuring optimal reading outcomes. The entire publication is online.
Web version available: books.nap.edu/html/prdyc/


Improving the Reading Achievement of America's Children: 10 Research-Based Principles
(pdf, 2 pages, Summer 1998)
From the Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) 10 research-based principles that describe how to improve reading achievement.
Web version available: www.ciera.org/library/instresrc/principles/index.html


Every Child Reading: An Action Plan
(pdf, 24 pages, June 1998)
An Action Plan that details the Learning First Alliance's agreement on the most effective ways to teach children how to read. The report outlines eight steps to improve reading instruction and increase the reading proficiency of all children.

Web version available: learningfirst.org/lfa-web/rp?pa=doc&docId=46
(The Learning First Alliance was also produced a Professional Development Guide to accompany Every Child Reading: An Action Plan.)


Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children
(pdf, 16 pages, May 1998)
A joint position statement of the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) has the purpose "to provide guidance to teachers of young children in schools and early childhood programs (including child care centers, preschools, and family child care homes) serving children from birth through age eight."
Web version available: www.naeyc.org/resources/position_statements/psread0.htm


FLaRE Research Documents

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Balanced Reading
29 Page document On Balanced Reading Instruction in the K-3 Classrooms
includes References and Glossary


Emergent Literacy
32 Page document On Emergent Literacy
includes References and Glossary


Phonemic Awareness
26 Page document on Phonemic Awareness in the K-3 Classroom
includes References and Glossary


Limited English Proficiency
31 Page document on Literacy for Limited English Proficiency Students
includes References and Glossary


Family Literacy
32 Page document on Family Literacy
includes References and Glossary